Musicologica Olomucensia 13 (2011)

Jan Blüml

Zur Geschichte der modernen Populärmusik in Olmütz: die Entwicklung der Countrymusik, Folkmusik und Wanderlieder vor dem Jahr 1989

Die Geschichte der modernen tschechischen Populärmusik vor dem Jahr 1989 umfasst eine Vielzahl von vermischten Stilrichtungen. Aus der Sicht der gemeinschaftlichen Bedeutung gehören zu den wichtigsten von ihnen zweifellos die Bereiche der Folkmusik, Countrymusik und Wanderlieder. Obwohl viele bedeutende Ereignisse, die mit den Konstitutionen dieses Musikbereiches verbunden sind, sich in Prag abspielten, entwickelten sich seit den Sechzigerjahren erfolgreich insbesondere lokale Kreis- und Bezirksszenen. Nicht einmal die Olmützer Szene war eine Ausnahme, in der während der Sechziger und Achtziger Jahre eine Menge von bemerkenswerten Solisten und Gruppen erschienen. Ein Olmützer Künstler, der einen gesamtstaatlichen Erfolg erzielte, war Karel Plíhal. Der Volksmusikliedermacher begann seine Karriere in den Sechziger Jahren in der örtlichen Gruppen Hučka, Falešní Hráči und Plíharmonyje. Zu Anfang der Achtziger Jahre begab er sich auf Solokarriere. Dank seiner hohen originellen Werke reihte sich Plíhal zu den bedeutendsten Darstellern, der sogenannten zweiten Generation der tschechischen Folkmusik, ein. Eine Olmützer Countrygruppe, die deutlich in das gesamtstaatliche Geschehen eingriff, war beispielsweise Bluegrass Nova.

Parallel zur steigenden Beliebtheit der Folkmusik, Countrymusik und Wanderlieder bei dem Olmützer Publikum kam es zu einer Ausbreitung der örtlichen institutionalen Basis dieser Musik. Während der Sechziger und Achtziger Jahre in Olmütz fanden zahlreiche mehr oder weniger bedeutende Festivals und Musikschauen statt, und es entstanden neue Clubs. Die lokalen Kulturorganisationen veranstalteten ebenfalls regelmäßige Populärvortragszyklen und Seminare über die Schlüsselfiguren, Gruppen und Stile des inkriminovierten Musikbereiches. Ein Ehrenplatz in der Geschichte der heimatlichen Populärmusik in Olmütz gebührt auch dank der Veranstaltung einem der bedeutendsten heimatlichen Festivale – Porta, das hier sehr erfolgreich in den Jahren 1977, 1978 und 1979 stattfand.

Lucie Brázdová

The Gradual of Česká Skalice 1567

The Gradual of Česká Skalice, dating back to 1567, is a significant hand-written record kept in the Museum of Božena Němcová, which situated in Česká Skalice. This codex, which is written in Czech and is of a regional character, may be listed among all the other Czech sources. By analyzing it we may contribute to the recognition of the repertoire of utraquistic sources. However, the Gradual of Česká Skalice does not belong to such prestigious codices as the Gradual of Strahov, the Gradual of Chrudim, dating back to 1570, Franus’ Hymnbook. The Gradual of Česká Skalice is merely a paper codex the decoration of which is very humble.

When reviewing the repertoire of the graduals, it is obvious that the Gradual of Česká Skalice contains only the most basic information. The proprium de tempore is announced; that is the repertoire covering the period from the advent to the office for sins. Offices on sanctification, the Ascension of the Virgin Mary, Sunday and on the Apostles are added to this from the votive masses. The repertoire lacks proprium de sanctis, commune sanctorum, votive masses, cantiones, polyphonic songs and diapason patriamina. To add to that, the Gradual of Česká Skalice contains written-out antiphons about Low Sunday and introits about the fasting Sundays.

It is without doubt that the Gradual of Česká Skalice is a matter of local character. The difference is also apparent in the very objective the source was created for. The origin of the Gradual of Česká Skalice was not stimulated by the effort to own an expensive and richly decorated hymnbook, but rather the effort to own such a codex, which would especially serve practical purposes. Therefore, we cannot add it to the prestigious codices when taking into consideration its external and internal characteristics.

Alena Burešová

Jaroslav Křička and Olomouc

Jaroslav Křička (27 August 1882 – 23 January 1969) was one of the renowned Czech composers who were attached to musical traditionalism. Apart from his profession as a composer, Křička also successfully followed career as a conductor, choirmaster, organiser, pedagogue, and publicist. His compositional output encompasses almost every musical style and genre. Křička also created a brand-new genre with his works for children.

Although native of Moravia, Křička spent most of his creative life in Prague. He was always in touch with many semi-professional and professional musicians for whom he gratuitously composed occasional musical pieces. In the old Olomouc – the city with traditional professional institutions as well as a solid culture of amateur musicianship – Křička found an accommodating background and performers. Křička’s contacts with Olomouc are visible for practically the whole of the last century. A closer look reveals that Olomouc was not only the place where composer’s works were performed, but the city also functioned as a deep source of inspiration, which epitomized to Křička relationship to home and his inner attitudes.

Jiří Kopecký

The Director Friedrich Blum in Olomouc Theater and the Revolutionary Year 1848

Friedrich Blum became director of the Olomouc Theater in 1847, and the events of the revolution of 1848 strengthened his position there during the entire decade of the 1850´s. Blum was able to integrate the theater into the community life of the town, and to profit by directing the theaters in Olomouc and Krakow simultaneously. He also took advantage of contacts in Lvov [Lemberg] and Karlovy Vary [Carlsbad]. Despite the rigid absolutism closely connected to the political realities of the time, Blum led artistic efforts with tolerance and vigor. But since these artistic accomplishments did not gain appreciation by specialists, and Blum was not able, for example, to rely on reserving free tickets to further the theater’s role as an institution of cultural education, the ensemble eventually performed at only an average level. Blum became an undesirable person, and was not able to continue during the changes that followed the October Diploma of 1860.

Ingrid Silná

Watchtower Music in the 19th Century in Litovel

The study deals with the tower masters in Litovel (Moravia) in their last period of activity, i. e. 19th century. The tower musicians were acting there from about 1566. They were associated, like in other towns, in artisan corporations. The main person, paid by municipal authorities, was the tower master, who employed a journeyman and some helpers (guards), and also educated some apprentices. During the 19th century, three musicians worked, one after another, as the tower masters. From the end of the 18th century to 1811, it was Franz Josef Schiebel, then, from 1811 to 1841, Ignaz Bartl (1777–?), and finally, from 1841 to 1866, Josef Jiránek (1800–1885).

From the practical point of view, they were important as watchmen, i. e. they announced time or danger by means of a short Intrada.

Their performing activities in the sphere of secular music enriched musical life, they played both from the town hall tower, and at dances, as well as within other occasions.

However, the significant sphere of their performances was also the temple music within masses in the St. Mark’s parish church. The educational activities were required only from the tower master as a part of his duty, and it contributed to the continuity of musical life in the town. The above mentioned musical activities of tower masters contributed to the cultural life not only in the 19th century but during the whole three hundred year period of their activities in the town.

Martina Stratilková

Musik in der Philosophie Jean-Paul Sartres

Jean-Paul Sartre (1905–1980), ein bedeutender Schriftsteller und existenzialischorientierter Phänomenologe, hatte eine enge Beziehung zur Kunst und hatte sich sehr oft über künstlerische Fragen geäuβert. Seine philosophischen Erstlingswerke über die Bedeutung des emotionellen Erlebens oder über die Funktionen des Bewusstseins bei Vorstellungsgestaltung sind für Musik relevant, und zwar sowohl dank ihren direkten Hinweisen auf Musik als auch mit Ansichten, die das Hauptwerk Sein und Nichtsein (1943) antizipieren und zur zentralen philosophischen Konzeption Sartres gehören. Meine Studie behandelt das Wesen und die Verwandlungen der Anschauung Sartres auf Musik und musikalische Bedeutung, vor allem was die Fähigkeit der Musik auf auβermusikalische Realität hinzuweisen betrifft. Mein Text berücksichtigt auch – neben philosophischen Entwürfen – Sartres eigene Erfahrungen mit der Kunst.

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