Musicologica Olomucensia 19 (2014)
Music in TV Advertising: a Quantitative Study
Music plays a considerable role in current television commercials. A quantitative analysis of 1,584 television commercials broadcast in the last few years by the Czech nationwide television stations showed that music occurs in 94.0 % of them, which is one of the largest numbers recorded among comparable studies in different countries. However, there are big differences in how music is used in the commercials. In the most of the spots the music is just used in the background. Sometimes commercial creators seem to think that music simply must be in their commercials, regardless of whether it has any relation to the other aspects of the commercial or not. On the other hand, there are many examples of deliberate inclusion of music in the production of TV spots, including cases where the whole spot is clearly built primarily on the music used. Only one in ten spots can be said to possess a combination of music with other components that is clear and visible, which is a big contrast when compared to the more than half of the spots where the music was evaluated as fulfilling a merely background role. This study also shows how commercial music creators currently work with particular music design elements such as tempo, tonality, musical types, genres, or lyrics to transfer or highlight the advertising message.
Concerning the Musical Symbolisation of Flight within A. N. Scriabin’s Compositions
The symbol of ‘flight’ is of key importance in the works of A. N. Scriabin. It appears both in his poems (Poème de l’Extase, Acte préalable) and his compositions with regard to melody, rhythm and texture. Such melody is typified by a spiral direction which ascends higher and higher. It usually contains a large leap melodic upwards (mostly minor sixth) followed by a countermovement. A dotted rhythm with take-off, like a pause for an “intake of breath” is frequently used, as well as a pause at the end of a triplet figure. Within the scope of rhythm and texture ‘flightness’ is shown by typical accompanying figures. Their main feature is how it begins on the highest note with a subsequent descending melody. The lowest bass note is on a weak beat followed by a big melodic leap up to a strong beat. At the micro-gestural level, ‘flightness’ is expressed by gestural figures of an accelerating take-off, a fading away take-off, a wave of take-off plus take-off dissolving into a trill. The concept of ‘flightness’ is also connected, at first, with a buoyant and increasingly whirling exultation, whose aim is always to achieve ecstasy and liberation of the soul from material bondage.
Iša Krejčí’s activities in Olomouc (1945–1958)
The article describes all activities which conductor and composer Iša Krejčí undertook during his time in Olomouc (1945–1958). The paper tries to evaluate what importance this composer played in the cultural progress of Olomouc. The article also includes a brief study of the most important principles of his musical style. The study focuses on dramaturgy, composing, pedagogical and journalistic activities of Iša Krejčí.
The influence of 20th century modern technologies on musical work and its copyright protection
The technologies of the 20th century represent an important milestone for the concept of musical work in history that concerns not only music composition itself but also its conservation and transmission.
It might have been in the field of music composition that these tendencies have become apparent first – in the construction of first electronic musical instruments; the integration of civilization, primarily non-musical sounds into classical music compositions; and after World War II, also in the new composition methods that record media started employing (e.g. magnetic tapes used for sound collage or phase shifts); furthermore, in the algorithmic composition mathematical formulae and computers applied (as digital support for the restoration of music scores or even as the proper creator of the composition that the computer either reproduces or conveys its graphical notation) or so-called live electronic music (in the sense of the flexibility of technical operations during live performances – reproductions of the work). However, computer music has also brought up new questions on the conception of the work of art and the scope and definition of music itself. These specific traits of so-called new music from the point of view of copyright are the subject of the Appraisal of the Institute of Copyright, Industrial Property and Competition Law of the Faculty of Law of Charles University (abbreviated Appraisal UPAPP) that reflects on the works of electronic and experimental music.
The study also touches on the possibilities of mass distribution of works, mainly related to the Internet and the development of new digital media with which can help to preserve (or fixate) and distribute recordings. These relatively new digital platforms and formats are on the one hand a way to liberalise and shift the distribution of music. On the other hand, they mean some flattening of the quality (technical and content) and a corresponding sharp increase in the quantity of recorded music. These aspects are also reflected in copyright law, where they have caused an increase of the specific problems related mainly to illegal distribution of musical works. Copyright law already regulates so-called indirect means of copyright protection (e.g. § 43). In the future, today’s strategy of no responsibility for what content customers are offered on the side of website operators is threatened, since the advocates of stricter protection promote new harsher laws, for example liability of owners and operators of Websites for their content and trying to de facto introduce some form of Internet censorship.
On the figure of Konrad Schmitz in the context of musical life in Krnov from the beginning of the 20th century until the end of World War II
The music culture in Krnov in the period from the beginning of the 20th century until the end of World War II was influenced by a specific multinational composition of residents that included a strong German majority. The conductor and organist Konrad Schmitz emerged as its most prominent representative, and raised the standard of Krnov’s musical life in terms of both repertoire and its interpretation and management. Schmitz was the most influential in his performing of important vocal works of European sacred music.
Folk inspirations in Zdeněk Šesták’s choir music
In his paper, the author deals with the choral pieces of Zdeněk Šesták (1925) which are inspired by folk songs and folk poetry. He makes a survey of both Šesták’s choral arrangements of folk songs and his own compositions on folk verses. The detailed analysis of the 1st movement of cantata Vítej, slunko líbezné results in a generalized characteristics of Šesták’s style and approach to folk inspiration. There are few features which connect his music with folk songs – the construction of melody in which the composer uses elements from instrumental melodies and also vocal melodies which are often similar to the melody of rhymes. On the other hand, there are many more features which are different from folk songs: variety of metre, complicated rhythm, incessant change of tonal centres; the music is organized in church and folk modality but the extended tonality prevails. Concerning the form, it is typical that composer mostly avoids the principle of reprise. In general, it is possible to mark these features as the continuity of the style called “Neoclassicism”, represented in Czech music e.g. by Bohuslav Martinů or Iša Krejčí.
A Theory of Musical Interpretation as a Bridge between Theory and Practice
In this study the author presents the method of so-called interpretative analysis of music which she applies within the process of teaching analytical and aesthetic subjects within the Music and Dance Faculty of an Academy of Performing Arts. Interpretative analysis differs from conventional scholastic analysis by considering music as a phenomenon ongoing in time. The starting point for interpretative analysis is not the score, but the sound and the sensory functioning of music. Interpretative analysis also differs from regular scholastic analysis by its original method of asking questions, or rather by the application of distinctive methodological strategies. The aim of interpretative analysis therefore is to reveal the unique story of the composition. After explaining the theoretical context, the author presents practical demonstrations of the interpretative analysis of Intermezzo No. 4, Op. 116, by Brahms. On the basis of the definition of the concept of “authentic interpretation” regarding Adorno’s theory of music interpretation, the author finally outlines the conclusions she and the students of Academy of Performing Arts came to concerning the comparison and authenticity of the three performances.