Musicologica Olomucensia 20 (2014)
Cultural and political determinants of Czechoslovak progressive rock at the turn of the 1960´s and 1970´s of the 20th century
While in the European countries outside the Eastern Bloc popular music was usually primarily classified on the basis of style or genre identity, Czechoslovak popular music was primarily divided into the categories of official and unofficial (or illegal) music. In the paper, progressive rock and its social functions is reflected through this prism. With regard to the above-mentioned facts, the article discusses the major trends of Czechoslovak progressive rock in the 70´s. It includes folklore-based progressive rock (the album Odyssea, recorded 1969), progressive rock inspired by the Czech tradition of big band music (Nová syntéza, 1971) or progressive rock and poetry (Kuře v hodinkách, 1972).
Anja Bunzel – Barbora Kubečková
Václav Jan Tomášek (1774–1850): A Versatile Lieder Composer? A Comparative Analysis of Selected Goethe Settings by Carl Friedrich Zelter, Václav Jan Tomášek and Johanna Kinkel
Carl Friedrich Zelter (1758–1832), Václav Jan Tomášek (1774–1850) and Johanna Kinkel (1810–1858) share at least two commonalities: firstly, they produced a great deal of vocal music, particularly Lieder, so that their compositions influenced the development of the nineteenth-century Lied in one way or the other. Secondly, all three composers set to music Goethe’s poems although their (personal) relationships to Goethe differed from each other. Zelter, a very close friend of Goethe’s, paid extraordinary attention to the poet’s work and its musical potential which is recognisable by means of both the great number of Goethe-Lieder produced by Zelter and the rich musical discussions included in Goethe and Zelter’s correspondence. Unlike Zelter, Tomášek met Goethe only a few times and his bequeathed correspondence with Goethe is fairly small. Although Goethe praised Tomášek’s settings of his poems on several occasions, Tomášek’s Goethe-Lieder are rather unknown. Johanna Kinkel never met Goethe in person; yet Goethe’s poetry takes a significant place within her Lieder Œuvre. Especially her early Lieder compositions, which were published in 1838 and 1839 and which include four Goethe settings, were received with great enthusiasm by the contemporary musical print media.
By means of comparative analysis, this article aims to shed light on a selection of Zelter’s, Tomášek’s and Kinkel’s Goethe settings. As a transitional musical character between the Classical and the Romantic periods, Václav Jan Tomášek applied compositional features originating from both eras and his compositions thereby serve as a link between the rather Classically-oriented composer Zelter and Kinkel whose compositional style reflects typical Romantic features. Using as an analytical basis the two Goethe-Lieder An den Mond and Nachgefühl, this article depicts differences and similarities between all three composers’ compositional styles as well as between the two Lieder of each individual composer. The aim of this article is to place Tomášek’s compositional versatility within its own context and, as a result, to suggest possible directions for future examinations of Tomášek’s (and other composers’) (Goethe)-Lieder.
Jiřina Dvořáková Marešová
Semanticity as a Common Goal and the Link between Theoretical Analysis of Music and Its Particular Interpretive Rendition
This article deals with musical analysis which describes as a result of theoretical-anlytical process as well as interpretative process. It shows the two main possibilities how to analyse a musical piece. The first one is the theoretical analysis, the second is the analysis of interpretation. It tries to compare these two different ways, describes their ways of meaning, differences, but also tries to find the similar topics and ideas for both of them. It tries to find the real key for understanding the musical analysis in both forms – the semanticity of the musical language.
Concerning the Symbol of Desire and Its Musical Rendition within A. N. Scriabin’s Piano Compositions
The symbol of languor is a counterpart of the symbol of flight. It represents the erotic element which occurs in Scriabin’s personality, philosophy and compositions very significantly. Melodically, the symbol of languor stands for the indirect melody ending with chromatic descent of three notes. The most frequently it is expressed by the “sigh” of twice or three times repeated two-tone figure in which the first note has a longer duration. If the motifs contain this “sigh figure”, we can call them as “sigh” motifs which has the tendency to descend. Whereas the motifs lacking this figure we call as “floating” motifs which tend to rise. However, the sphere of the symbol of languor is defined by its texture rather than by its melody. The texture is characterized by significant or even polyphonic independence of the middle voices and the closeness of melody and accompanying figures.
The Principle of Quotation from the Perspective of Musical Practice and Copyright Law
This article deals with the issue of music quotation seen from the copyright and musicological perspective. Music uses quotation since time immemorial, although more often it is linked with so called historicism since the end of the 19th century. The biggest blossom can be noticed in the second half of the 20th century, when the quotation became an individual compositional technique of postmodern ‘multi-stylishness’. In musicological approach there were for instance Sofia Lissa or Krystyna Tarnawska summarising this term, in the scope of copyright law a quotation belongs to the category of legal limitations (in Czech republic known as a gratuitous statutory license under § 31 art. 1 czech Copyright Act). This Act distinguishes between a so called small quote, large quote and an educational or research quote. Further, after a definition of its main attributes as well as their comparison to both presented views, this article focuses on a classification of quotations (especially on the basis of function), comments upon each type, names the examples and describes special cases of quotation, and specifically sampling.
Lu Yue – Peng Yuntong
Impacts of Inclusion on Music Education for Children with Special Educational Needs
With the current worldwide trend of inclusive education, music education needs to face the challenge that more and more students with special needs have joint music classes. Through literature review, this article discusses the music education in inclusive classroom and music teacher education. Above all, although inclusive education practice was not easy to implement, it is exactly the reality and the future of education. Music education should be prepared to play an important role in inclusive education.
Peter Breiner and His Syncretic Musical Output
Peter Breiner is a unique composer. His compositional work is polystylistical, therefore ranks among the most original Slovak music stars of the 20th century. Neoclassical compositional style draws from multiple roots: of classical European music, from American jazz and modern popular music and the Slovak folklore. Its key creation till 1995 includes symphonic, respectively vocal-symphonic works, chamber music and also dance tracks to rock character.