Musicologica Olomucensia 22 (2015)
Processes of spectralization: From Josquin’s Missa “L’homme armé” Super Voces Musicales to Haas’s Tria ex Uno
This article sheds new light on Georg Friedrich Haas’s borrowing methods through an analysis of Tria ex Uno, which paraphrases a piece published half a millennium earlier: the Agnus Dei II from Josquin des Prez’s Missa “L’homme armé” super voces musicales, which employs borrowing techniques itself. I demonstrate the transformation from the Agnus Dei II to Tria ex Uno by revealing Haas’s specific spectral paradigms and techniques within a framework of Peter Burkholder’s and Richard Beaudoin’s work on musical borrowing. My study thus provides a means to understand the spectral treatment of existing music within the discourse on musical borrowing.
The Lullaby of Ilse Weber: Terezín as a Mirror Image
Although Ilse Weber’s compositions have become central to the “Terezín canon”, very few of her musical manuscripts are available. My study argues that the lack of sources actually serves Weber’s popularity, as her Terezín songs can be tailored to the needs of individual performers to represent manifold notions of Terezín. Furthermore, my research juxtaposes Terezín’s current status as a memorial site with its original function as a “Potemkin Village.” Considering that much of the complexity of Terezín’s original soundscape has been ignored or suppressed, I argue that it has become a simplified mirror image of the “model ghetto” it originally was.
Bridging Deep Chasms: The Soviet Third Direction in Aleksei Rybnikov’s Rock Opera The Star and Death of Joaquin Murieta
Rock opera in the Soviet Union was a phenomenon with obviously Western roots yet inextricably tied up with and enabled by homegrown players and policies. Aleksei Rybnikov’s The Star and Death of Joaquin Murieta (1976) is an early example of the merging of academic and popular music desired by the Composers’ Union. An examination of the genesis, production, and reception of this Soviet rock opera will shed light on the philosophical and compositional movement called “The Third Direction” – and why it was considered desirable.
A Musical Analysis of Mythical Thought in the Work of Claude Lévi-Strauss
This study addresses the music-related aspects of the works of Claude Lévi-Strauss within the context of musicology and with a specific focus placed on his Mythologiques tetralogy. The aim is to define thematic categories for the individual theses within which they are further contextually understood. Selected references to music from Lévi-Strauss’s work were analysed, compared, and interpreted, taking into consideration the theories of structural linguistics and anthropology. The topics chosen for the investigation include the system of relationships between language, mythology, and music, the analysis of myths using musical scores, the thesis that both music and myth are instruments that suppress time, the mythical nature of musical forms, and an analysis of Maurice Ravel’s Bolero. The study takes into account current musicological applications that use the structural analysis of myths, and also critical reflections regarding Lévi-Strauss’s theories. The individual categories were defined as structural homologies of myth and music, methodological tools of a metaphorical type to analyse myths using music, and the area commenting on the principles governing the styles and forms in the development of European art music and composed poetry.
“Providing for the Active Participation of the Entire Assembly”: Petr Eben’s Liturgical Music with Congregational Participation
Petr Eben was one of the few internationally renowned composers embracing the implications of the Second Vatican Council on writing music for the liturgy designed for the active participation of the entire congregation. He took up this challenge and succeeded in meeting both liturgical and artistic requirements. This paper discusses technical and aesthetic questions involved in composing for congregations and exemplifies these questions in analysing three works by Petr Eben: Deutsches Ordinarium (1965), Marien-Vesper (1968) and Missa cum populo (1981–1982).
Reflection on Musical Contacts of Olomouc Bishops from the 18th Century in the Kroměříž Music Collection
The study deals with a number of musical manuscripts in the collection of the Archbishop’s château in Kroměříž, documenting the cross-border musical contacts of the Olomouc bishops in the 18th century. At the centre of attention are materials for five oratorios (scores and parts), which the professional public has not engaged with in detail to date (Holzbauer: La Passione di Gesù Cristo, Wagenseil: Gioas, Re di Giuda, La Redenzione, Anonymous: La Morte d’Abele, Dittersdorf: Il Davide). Three of these oratorios are directly connected with the Lenten musical academies held in the Vienna Burgtheater in the 1750´s, in which specifically in the case of Holzbauer’s oratorio these evidently concerned materials from the production in 1757.
Hans Mersmann and the Analysis of the New Music
The article deals with the concept of New Music, which in the 1920´s involved considerations concerning the fundamentally different character of 20th century music. It focuses on the definition of New Music from its influential proponent, Hans Mersmann, and primarily looks at the relationship of the concept of New Music to Mersmann’s phenomenology based on the notion of musical forces. Whereas with his phenomenologically-based aesthetics Mersmann pursued a practically verifiable application – aesthetics applied to concrete musical works – his definition of musical analysis and theory of musical structure cast doubt on the possibility of analytical exploitation of this applied aesthetics with regard to the music of the 20th century. This uncertainty is confronted with Mersmann’s analytical comments on 20th century music.
Václav Metoděj Uhlíř
Works for Organ by Josef Förster Jr. and Josef Bohuslav Foerster in the Context of the Transformation of the Organ Sound Ideal in Bohemia in the Second Half of the 19th Century
Organ compositions by Josef Förster Jr. and Josef Bohuslav Foerster are interesting from two points of view. In connection with Josef Förster Jr., this can primarily be seen within the context of the overall change of in the aesthetic organ ideal in Bohemia, which was mostly started by Förster himself. His compositions are professionally composed, but their invention does not exceed the average of contemporary compositions. The compositions of J. B. Foerster are not particularly interesting in terms of their organ-building context, as J. B. Foerster bases his character of the organ on that promoted by Josef Förster Jr. J. B. Foerster’s compositions are more interesting in terms of their compositional aspect. J. B. Foerster makes use of the organ like an orchestra, with a delicious intensification of multicoloured dynamics, with both distinct harmonic and dynamic twists, and also with a primary, but nevertheless changing, melodic. In this way a composition with the following characteristics arises: in comparison with Josef Förster Jr. more evolutionary, regardless of the time of creation (1896, 1925) but always conforming to a purely romantic feeling. Only a few of these compositions have been already critically edited and published. A number of them are definitely deserving of this in the future.
A Discourse on Belarusian Music and its Role in the Construction of Identities in Belarus
Issues of national identity remain a topic of great importance in Belarus, the state between “East and West”. In this article, I identify the discourse on Belarusian music taking place among young Belarusian adults. This discourse is centred on three major aspects: the very existence of a distinct Belarusian music, its authenticity and the aspect of language. The article attempts to demonstrate that the discourse, characterized by young people’s ambivalent perceptions of Belarusian culture and music, reflects the ongoing process for the search for identity. The complexity of the notion of Belarusian culture and the ambiguity of the term “Belarusian identity” is linked with the issue of the Belarusian language, which occupies a marginal position in Belarus. In this article, I analyse the interconnection of the perceptions of music, culture and language in Belarus, and identify the functions which Belarusian music fulfils, both for Belarusian- and Russianspeaking Belarusians.