Musicologica Olomucensia 30 (2019)
The author of the paper searches for the answer as to what Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf’s personality was like. In the case of this composer, we not only have his own biography, but also numerous archive evidence preserved in this country. The answer to such a question needs to be sought already in his childhood. His father was not only a theatre tailor, as stated in the existing domestic literary sources, but the imperial and theatre embroider. The contacts of his father in theatre circles and the nobility apparently influenced Dittersdorf’s future life, among other things his interest in opera. The author also observes how Dittersdorf’s personality and character developed, as well as his behaviour towards the nobility and common people. Attention is paid to his trouble with superiors, especially with Baron Kaschnitz. The paper documents Dittersdorf’s entrepreneurial spirit, his relationship to property and to his wife. One aspect of Dittersdorf’s life which is presently little known is his religious tolerance. The text deals in detail with his relationship with Mozart as a critical reaction to the most recent publication by Ian Woodfield Cabals and Satires. Based on this, the text also deals with the topic of the Brno premiere of Dittersdorf’s opera Die Hochzeit des Figaro [The Marriage of Figaro].
CARL DITTERS VON DITTERSDORF: NOTES ON THE THEMATIC CATALOGUE AND THE PROCESSING IN SHK [UNION CATALOGUE OF MUSIC]
Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf was one of the most productive composers of 1700s, which is also reflected by several hundred records in the central evidence of music resources in the Czech Republic, the Union Catalogue of Music (SHK) of the National Library of the Czech Republic. Coincidentally, the catalogue was established by the musicologist Oldřich Pulkert (1929–2016), who devoted many years to Ditters’ works. His last, unfortunately unfinished, project was a thematic catalogue of Dittersdorf’s works that were found in Pulkert’s estate. The paper informs about the representation of Dittersiana in SHK and the form of Pulkert’s catalogue, and proposes options for their further research utilization.
CARL DITTERS’ RELATIONSHIP TO OLOMOUC
The study focuses on the relationship between Carl Ditters and Olomouc, particularly to the music ensembles of Olomouc bishops, which has not yet been the subject of targeted research interest. The contribution documents Ditters’ compositions in the repertoire of Olomouc churches with a particular focus on the St. Wenceslas Cathedral whose music ensemble was led by Josef Puschmann, and the pilgrimage church at Svatý Kopeček [the Holy Hill] near Olomouc, where the oldest copy of Ditters’ Missa solemnis in C (Krebs 327) from the year 1770 is preserved. The study also investigates Ditters’ works in the archbishop’s library in Kroměříž, acquired partially via Franz Götz. Particular attention is paid to Ditters’ oratorio Il Davide nella valle di Terebintho and its staging at the Kroměříž Piarists.
PERCEPTION OF DITTERS’ OPERA WORKS IN THE CASTLE THEATRE OF THE TEUTONIC KNIGHTS IN BRUNTÁL
The paper briefly introduces the castle theatre in the residence of the order of Teutonic Knights in Bruntál, in particular its operation, repertoire, reprise rate of opera works and turnout. It also mentions the relationships between the Bruntál music-theatre stage and the nearby opera centres in Silesia and Northern Moravia at the turn of the 1800s, which had an important influence on the establishment of the repertoire of the castle theatre. The paper focuses on the personalities of the Bruntál theatre stage – Franz Josef Krones and especially Franz Josef von Thürheim, as well as on the transfer of sheet music among the neighbouring theatre centres, and the opera repertoire performed in the Bruntál theatre in the particular period with the emphasis on operas by Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf. The study also presents the preserved copies of Ditters’ operas, which belong to important evidence of the existence of the order’s castle theatre in Silesia.
DITTERS’ COMPOSITIONS IN THE SCHWARZENBERG MUSIC COLLECTION AND THE MUSIC LIFE OF THE PRINCELY COURT
From the perspective of the number of Dittersdorf’s compositions preserved, the Schwarzenberg music collection is a relatively small, but very valuable one, particularly in the field of orchestral music. Some of the copies preserved here could be considered unique with regard to the present state of investigation (although their authorship is therefore questionable). Despite this fact, this source of information on Ditters’ music presently remains rather unknown, and for instance in the RISM catalogue it is recorded only partially. The aim of this study is therefore to create a more detailed overview of the identified Dittersiana, as well as to reflect on the role of these compositions in the music activities of the Schwarzenberg counts and their employees.
INSTRUMENTAL WORKS OF CARL DITTERS VON DITTERSDORF AT PARIS PUBLISHERS
The production of Paris publishers in the second half of the 1700s is considered the most fruitful in contemporary Europe; as such it also significantly contributed to the dissemination of the repertoire of foreign authors, including composers from Central Europe. Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf ranks among the best-known Viennese composers of his generation, and it was perhaps even thanks to his success with Paris publishers that an awareness of his works has been preserved up until the present. Paris prints of his compositions belong to the very first editions; they appeared since 1766 and the greatest increase in the number of works published came in 1767. Dittersdorf’s instrumental compositions, especially symphonies, orchestral trios, and trio sonatas, as well as several piano adaptations of symphonies were released by prominent French publishers specializing in foreign production. In total, information about 94 compositions, published under the name Ditters, was found in 36 prints dated up to the year 1800. The preserved copies allow for determination of an error rate equalling approximately one fifth in the authenticity of works published. A great majority of the identified works that were published in Paris were composed in the 1760s or earlier – i.e. at the time when Ditters worked in Vienna. It is probable that particularly the contacts within the Viennese circles of musicians and sponsors, including the high nobility, enabled Ditters to establish contact with Paris publishers that was apparently direct to a certain extent.
RECENT STATE OF RESEARCH ON THE LIFE AND WORK OF CARL DITTERS VON DITTERSDORF IN POLAND
The paper presents the current state of research conducted by Polish scholars in the field of exploration and analysis of sources related to the work of Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf. This Vienesse-based composer played an important role in shaping the image of musical culture of Silesia at the end of the 18th century, especially due to his activity as a director of music at the bishop’s court in Javorník castle. Another reason was his artistic contacts with most important cultural centers of the entire region, such as Wrocław, Nysa, Bílá Voda and Oleśnica.
First remarks concerning preserved sources on Dittersdorf in Poland appeared in 1960s in various papers on several different musical collections. Inspired by the activity of German (Hubert Unverricht) or Czech (Rudolf Zuber) researchers, comprehensive source studies on Dittersdorf were initiated at the turn of the 20th and the 21st Century in Poland: Maria Zduniak at the Academy of Music in Wrocław aimed attention at contacts between Dittersdorf and Wrocław, while Piotr Tarlinski and Remigiusz Pośpiech at the University of Opole set his work in the wider context of Silesian and Polish music culture. The initial focus on sources from various Silesian centers (e.g. Wrocław, Oleśnica, Nysa, Kłodzko, Krzeszów) was later extended to other music collections in Poland. As it turned out, the work of Dittersdorf (mainly symphonies, opera arias and church music) constituted an important part of music collections from various regions of Poland (e.g. Jasna Góra, Kraków-Mogiła, Gidle, Staniątki and other). This circumstance enabled broader research in the field of music reception.
Currently, the research on various aspects of the work of Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf is being conducted at the Institute of Musicology at the University of Wrocław by Remigiusz Pośpiech (religious music, especially in Silesian monasteries, reception of works in Silesia and Poland), Agnieszka Drożdżewska (late stage works for the ducal stage in Oleśnica, contrafacta from the monastery collections, artistic contacts with Silesian centers), and Miłosz Kula (sources and reception of symphonies). Bachelor and master theses on Dittersdorf’s music also appear in musicological centers at the universities in Warsaw, Wrocław, Poznań and Kraków, which shows a gradual increase of the interest in this topic. Works by Dittersdorf, preserved in Polish archives and libraries, are also gradually becoming available to a wider audience through the CD-recording series, including the project Musica Claromontana.
ANTON NEUMANN. NEW FINDINGS ON THE LIFE AND WORK OF A FORGOTTEN COMPOSER, VIOLINIST AND KAPELLMEISTER
Anton Neumann (1721–1776) was a composer, violinist and Kapellmeister whose numerous original compositions are preserved in domestic as well as foreign music collections. The aim of the study is to introduce new findings on Neumann’s life and point out the importance of his preserved works, many of which manifest features of the “Sturm und Drang” style. Thanks to their characteristic composition style, Neumann’s works even enable us to determine the authorship for materials where the first name is missing. An extensive research project has demonstrated that his works are included in collections in Central, and partly also Western, Northern and Southern Europe. The paper discusses the importance of the fundamental collection of Neumann’s compositions in the property of Benedictine monks from Lambach and a determination of the links to the composer’s activity in Kroměříž. The crucial new findings involve a specification of Neumann’s date of birth, and proof of his identification with the personality of a Brno tower apprentice Johann Heinrich Neumann.
JOHANN GEORG ORSLER – A SILESIAN MUSICIAN IN THE SERVICE OF THE NOBILITY AND QUESTIONS REGARDING HIS WORK
Originally a Silesian musician, Johann Georg Orsler (or Orschler) was active in many places that are important for the music history of the Czech Lands: he was sent by the Count of Zerotin to study music at Rosetter and Fux in Vienna; in 1720s his activities are documented in Prague, followed by Moravia and Vienna in the service of Johann Matthias of Thurn and Valsassina, Count Franz Anton von Rottal, Count Joseph Johann Adam of Liechtenstein, or Count Thomas Vinciguerra of Collalto. The study summarizes the currently known biographic facts, and searches for the answer to the question of which of the prevalently instrumental compositions preserved under this particular surname were composed by the father, and which have to be attributed to his son Josef, a cellist of the Viennese court music ensemble.