Musicologica Olomucensia 9 (2007)

Jan Vičar

IVAN POLEDŇÁK – A PROMINENT PERSONALITY OF MUSIC IN OLOMOUC

Prof. PhDr. Ivan Poledňák, DrSc. (born on December 31, 1931, in Velké Meziříčí) who has recently celebrated his seventy fifth birthday, is a prominent personality of Czech and European musicology of the second half of the 20th century. Entries in encyclopedias, such as The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians or Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, prove the fact. The treatise tries to assess Ivan Poledňák’s contribution to activities of the Department of Musicology, Faculty of Arts, Palacký University, Olomouc, where he has worked since 1992 as a teacher, musicologist and also as a head of the department (1998–2000, 2003–2007).

Miloslav Blahynka

NOTES TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE MUSICOLOGICAL TERMINOLOGY BY FUKAČ AND POLEDŇÁK

Music and its terminological system is the publication, in which Jiří Fukač and Ivan Poledňák found the theoretical generalization of music. This process opens the door for the new conceptions in musicological research. Over the known considerations about regularities of musical language development, musical style and structure, they explored the new area. This area is created from the autonomous attributes, which are typical and specific for the recognition of music and has different quality as the recognition in natural science and also in social science. Several ideas from this publication were used in other books written by both authors, Fukač’s Aesthetics of music as the concreteness of the general aesthetics [Hudební estetika jako konkretizace obecné estetiky a muzikologická disciplína] and Poledňák’s Music as the issue of aesthetics [Hudba jako problém estetiky].

Pavel Blatný

DERJENIGE, DER INSPIRIERT HAT

Mein Beitrag ist praktisch eine „hommage“ an Ivan Poledňák weil er immer am Anfang aller meiner schöpferischen Erfindungen als Inspirator und Unterschützer stand, hauptsächlich von meinem „Dritten Strom“.

Miroslav K. Černý

THE PROBLEM OF SEMANTIC INTERPRETATION OF THE EARLY WORKS BY ANTONÍN DVOŘÁK

For a long time, A. Dvořák used to be described as a spontaneous musician. That was the way the Viennese circles (primarily E. Hanslick) had seen him, and Dvořák himself supported this opinion by a number of statements where he described himself as a naive and provincial musician. Thus, there is a question, whether we may read his composition semantically – and talk about its non-musical content. This issue was raised half a century ago by A. Sychra. He analyzed the material of Dvořák’s late symphonies and described Dvořák as a systematic, thoughtful and reflective composer. The analysis of the first five symphonies as well as that of the early string quartets had shown that since the first string quartet we may see to weaken the once typical sonata thematic contrast, mainly due to: a) the disproportion of the primary and secondary thematic structures; b) the exposition of the secondary theme in non-tonal mediant keys; c) the contrapuntal attachment of the main theme to the secondary theme directly in the first exposition. These three trends can be understood as basic determinations of the “after-Beethoven” musical development and are thus not very important from the semantic point of view. However, there are some particular structures, which can be understood as semantically interpretable – as the article describes.

Václav Drábek

ARTS AND CULTURE IN LIGHT OF THE NEW SCHOOL SYSTEM REFORM

In 2001, the government initiated school system reform; the concept of the reform presents in the White Book stipulated six primary strategic lines: 1. adaptation of educational and study programs to the living in an information society, 2. lifetime education, 3. efficiency and evaluation of the educational process, 4. promotion of internal changes and openness of educational institutions, 5. changes in the role and approach of educators, and 6. shifting from a centralized management system to self-administration of individual schools. The key objective of the reform is to transform the focus of schooling from presentation of ready-made knowledge to cultivation of skills of independent search for information, their processing and creative application.

Individual school’s educational activities should be based on the Framework Educational Program in which general educational goals are specified together with areas and competencies students should master. The Framework Educational Program reflects current trends in Europe, be it the arrangement or the contents: Language and Communication (mother tongue, foreign languages), Algebra (information and communication technologies), Humans and Environment (physics, chemistry, natural sciences, geography), Arts and Culture (music, fine arts, drama), Humans and Work (labor), Humans and Health (health education, physical education). Individual subjects form parts of larger sections, and integration becomes important at the very early stage of primary education, and it’s very much emphasized at secondary schools. The Framework Education Program is to be elaborated on by each school and made into their own detailed curriculums, taking into consideration the focus of the school and the field of study as well as students’ needs. The Framework Program defines curriculums only to the level of “content domains” which are not obligatory for but only recommended to the educator.

 The section of Arts and Culture covers wide-ranging issues of artistic and nonartistic cultures. Through integration of various kinds of arts some common features are to be presented, using the method of explaining the yet unknown with the already known, e.g. a musical collage is explained via a collage in fine arts, etc. The division of this section into four key sub-sections (literature, music, fine arts, and drama) is inevitable as interdisciplinary can only be a result of acquaintance with at least two fields of study.

This approach is reflected also in the concept of music lessons at primary school that are part and parcel of the section of Arts and Culture. Musical activities (vocal, instrumental, listening and movement exercises) are interlinked with the learning about literature, fine arts and drama. The benefit of this approach is the overcoming of the dividing lines between receiving and creating, tradition and present, and the seeking of relations between music, aesthetics and human lives. In this regard, the author gives credit to the reform of music teaching introduced by I. Poledňák and J. Budík (1969) that together with other impulses (integrative musical pedagogy, poly-aesthetic education) served as an inspiring example for the current educational reform.

The time of learning at primary school is viewed as a time of musical games, using of musical materials (musical workshops) a gaining an insight to music and its social functions. Methodologically, proactive work is preferred with a focus on students and semi-open teaching (the teacher sets the goal, and the student seeks ways of achieving it). The standing concept allows also for a wider integration than simple linking to different kinds of arts – it allows for an interdisciplinary integration that combines arts and aesthetics with the area of natural and social sciences. Commonly, this approach has the form of “project teaching”.

At the level of primary school, music is dedicated one lesson a week (grades 1 through 9), and two lessons a week at the first two grades of high school. The original plan of continuing with the section of Arts and Culture also at the third and fourth grade of high school in the form of joint lessons for musicians and fine artists has been rejected by the decision-making bodies, and thus a full integration of these areas has not been achieved. The curriculum would have focused on a universal development in the fields (creative workshops, multimedia projects, choir singing, chamber music, rock music, etc.). It is true that it is possible to teach these lessons as optional or facultative, but this very much complicates the student’s chances to make any of these fields a part of the A levels examination.

Eugenie Dufková

IN MARGIN

One of the closest friends of Professor Poledňák during his studies in Brno was Miloš Rejnuš, extremely talented not only as historian but also as dramatist. Unfortunately, his career took an abrupt end during an automobile accident when he was just going to visit a theatre performance in a town near Brno. His principal work, Ur-Hamlet (if Goethe wrote Ur-Faust, so Rejnuš wrote his Kennedyan judge Warren as a ur-history of Hamlet), although almost finished was re-re-written by another playwright-poet, Václav Renč, in form not only of a drama, but also of an opera (The Poison of Elsinor).

Roman Dykast

MUSIQUE DANS L’ENCYKLOPÉDIE D’ALEMBERT ET DIDEROT

L’étude aborde les liens de la musique avec l’encyclopédisme au milieu du XVIIIe siècle. Il apporte une réflexion sur ce qui motivait l’intérêt si frappant des encyclopédistes pour l’art, la théorie et l’esthétique de la musique. Les considérations argumentent de la lecture des textes de l’époque (Diderot, D’Alembert, Batteux, Rousseau, Rameau) qui peut nous aider à remonter le temps. Le système de l’Encyclopédie est fondé sur l’explication de la génération de nos idées. Pour cette raison il faut consulter Discours préliminaire de D’Alembert qui a vu le jour dans le premier tome de l’Encyclopédie. D’Alembert écrit que le premier pas que nous ayons à faire dans la recherche, est d’examiner la généalogie et la filiation de nos connaissances, les causes qui ont dû les faire naître, et les caractères qui les distinguent ; en un mot, de remonter jusqu’à l’origine et à la génération de nos idées. On trouve ici les rudiments d’un principe de l’imitation de la belle nature (Batteux), l’idée de fonder tous les Beaux-arts – poésie, architecture, peinture, musique et danse – sur une base commune, sur les notions d’imitation et d’imagination. La musique est en même temps le miroir des autres arts avec lesquels elle forme, autour d’un principe de l’imitation, un chœur unique et harmonieux. La structure de l’article dans l’Encyclopédie est présentée sur l’article Musique qui était rédigé par Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Naďa Hrčková

„DER FALL IVAN POLEDŇÁK“ IN DEM KONTEXT DER GEGENWÄRTIGEN SLOWAKISCHEN MUSIKKULTUR (BEI DER GELEGENHEIT EINES LEBENSJUBILÄUMS)

Die Überschrift ist eine Paraphrase des Titels des gleichnamigen Aufsatzes von Ivan Poledňák über den zeitgenössischen tschechischen Komponisten, des vom kommunistischen Regime exkommunizierten Jan Klusák auf dem Melos-Ethos Symposium in Bratislava. Ivan Poledňák war zwar nicht exkommuniziert, ist aber schon während des totalitären Regimes zur wissenschaftlichen und moralischen Autorität geworden. Die Autorin als Teilnehmerin der Avantgarde der 60-er Jahre preist persönlich die Poledňáks Stellungnahme zu diesem, von Regime lange proskribierten Bereich und drückt ihre Bewunderung und Hochachtung ihm gegenüber aus.

Helena Chaloupková

FROM FOLKLORE TO WORLD MUSIC: CZECH SCENE

World music as a typical product of a multicultural society does not have a strong position in the Czech Republic, is a result of complicated and long (mainly politically influenced) process. Ethnic fusions seem to be in their infantile stage there – performances, festivals etc. as well as their appearance in the press are more casual than systematic. It is more about enthusiasm of a few fans than about a business based on strategic plans.

The process of infiltration of both local and exotic ethnic elements into Czech popular music has been slow and quite complicated on account of specific pressure from the socialistic governments. Besides the “official” folk music scene (heavily influenced by state surveillance) and again the “official” pop music scene (rejecting “western, non-socialistic” music), there was at least some sporadic contacts with Latin American, Indian, Caribbean, African, Gypsy music as well as a few interesting projects mainly inspired by Moravian folk music.

The infiltration of ethnic elements into the Czech scene is not just a result of specific politic conditions. Admittedly, not until recent decade has Czech society been familiarizing itself with a rich multicultural life, a life that has been existing for more than 20 years in Western Europe. The situation after 1989 is considered as a fundamental and positive reversal of the history of intercultural communication in the Czech Republic. Opening the Czech borders either in economical or cultural meanings, caused crumbling of actual barriers, liberalization of both the market and thinking of people as well. At this moment, the situation in Bohemia and Moravia is much better with a huge influx of foreign ethnic tradition and at the same time a (re)discovering of domestic traditions (specifically, a complicated relationship to folk heritage that has its roots in the movement of so-called folklorism). A deep-rooted tradition to get to know and appreciate others from one’s perspective has been largely attacked as intercultural communication slowly infiltrates the whole society.

Presently, the quite conservative popular music scene offers world music projects, but only on the periphery. Few performers of folk based fusions remain on the edge of mass audience interest or business, and that could be said about top figures as well. Only a few of recordings have international distribution and only a few of musicians perform abroad. Among these exceptions are Hradišťan, Vlasta Redl, Ad libitum Moravia (Viklický, Pavlica, Lapčíková) and Čechomor, who several times took part in the world music festival in Germany, Rudolstadt. Viklický together with Lapčíková and Pavlica performed in Japan, Mexico and the USA. Teagrass and Věra Bílá and Ida Kelarová co-operate with foreign producers and they are regular guests of international meetings. Currently, Iva Bittová is the most successful “exported” figure of not only the Czech world music scene, but also, at the same time, of ethno-music and the so-called alternative scene.

VON DER VOLKSMUSIK ZU DER WORLD-MUSIC: DIE TSCHECHISCHE SZENE

Die Infiltration von ethnischen Elementen in die tschechische Unterhaltungsmusik des 20. Jahrhunderts lief nur langsam und ziemlich kompliziert durch. Im Prinzip bildeten sich zwei Linien heraus – die offizielle (durch den Staat unterstützte, etwa frigid) und die alternative (anspruchslose, aber manchmal lebensfähige). Aufmerksamkeit zogen v. a. karibische, indische, afrikanische und Roma-Elemente. Die Beziehung der Schöpfer von der tschechischen Unterhaltungsmusik zu lokalen Traditionen beeinflusste sehr (negativ) die sog. Folklorismus-Bewegung. Die gesamte Geschlossenheit und Isolation der tschechischen Gesellschaft (als ein Teil des sozialistischen Lagers) störten erst dank dem politischen Umsturz im Jahre 1989 demokratische Prozesse. Die Grenzöffnung bedeutete eine grosse Verbreitung von interkulturellen kommunikativen Möglichkeiten. Die heutige bescheidene Szene der tschechischen World-Musik repräsentieren Namen wie Iva Bittová, Zuzana Lapčíková, Věra Bílá, Ida Kelarová, Vlasta Redl, Čechomor, Hradišťan und andere.

Jiří Kopecký

SØREN KIERKEGAARD AND SENSUOUS/SENSUAL IMMEDIACY OF MUSIC OF WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART’S DON GIOVANNI

The Søren Kierkegaard’s work provides inexhaustible material above all for philosophers, his perfect acquaintance with theatre however left inspirative ideas for the aesthetics of theatre, music etc. This study deals with the essay The Immediate Stages of the Erotic or the Musical Erotic from the 1st part of Either/Or. For Kierkegaard music represented – as for many other romanticists in the 19th century – a sort of art with extraordinary rich and so far not fully exploited possibilities. In spite of an almost ecstatic admiration of the opera Don Giovanni by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and thanks to the method, which overcame pitfalls of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s dialectics and screened one and the same theme in multiple rotation, Kierkegaard managed to reach conclusions, which are not limited only to Mozart’s work but overtook its age and can be applied to music as general. According to Kierkegaard music is determined by „sensuous genius“, which manifests itself in an immediate course in time. Music introduces its own conditions of time (hence the author’s notes about the music daemonic), it is able as a medium provide connection with nonmusical phenomena, which are characteristic of its sensuous immediacy. Kierkegaard’s deposit touches also contemporary state of music aesthetics (e.g. phenomenology and its finding both the responsive and responsible methodology) and music practice (e.g. Michael Haneke’s performance of Mozart’s Don Giovanni in Paris 2006).

Lenka Křupková

DARMSTADT DES OSTENS. ZUR REFLEXION DES WARSCHAU HERBSTES IN DER TSCHECHISCHEN MUSIKPUBLIZISTIK DER 50ER UND 60ER JAHRE DES 20. JAHRHUNDERTS

Seit dem Jahre 1956 entwickelte sich in Polen eine außerordentliche Situation, während der sich im Rahmen der zentral gesteuerten Kulturpolitik der kommunistischen Länder auf der Plattform des Festivals „Warschauer Herbst“ ein Forum der modernen Musik bildete. Das Forum war gegenüber der westlichen Neuen Musik gezielt positiv geöffnet. In diesem Milieu etablierte sich die polnische kompositorische Schule, derer Repräsentanten bald von außen mit Respekt wahrgenommen wurden. In der damaligen Tschechoslowakei wurde die polnische Musik ziemlich deutlich reflektiert – als Nachweise können Artikel in zeitgenössischen Musikperiodiken dienen. Der Verband tschechoslowakischer Komponisten (Svaz Československých skladatelů) sponserte jedes Jahr eine zahlreiche Gruppe unserer „Beobachter“, also Komponisten, ausübender Künstler, Musikwissenschaftler, die den „Warschauer Herbst“ besuchten, der auf diese Art und Weise zum Darmstadt für volksdemokratische Länder wurde. Zahlreiche Referate, die nach jedem Besuch des Festivals folgten und die vor allem in der Zeitschrift „Musikalische Rundschau“ (Hudební rozhledy) erschienen, repräsentieren nur zum Teil ein individuelles Meinungsfeld deren Autoren. Aus der heutigen Sicht sind diejenigen Texte am interessantesten, die in den ersten Jahrzehnten der Existenz des Festivals entstanden, weil daraus ersichtlich ist, dass diese zum bedeutenden Teil auch offizielle, seitens des Verbandes überprüfte Stellungnahmen zu der Neuen Musik repräsentierten und gleichzeitig man auch Probleme der zeitgenössischen eigentlichen tschechischen oder slowakischen musikalischen Produktion löst. Auf Grund dieser reflektierenden Aufsätze von dem Ende der fünfziger und aus den sechziger Jahren versuche diese Studie zu zeigen, wie die Grundzüge und Spezifika der tschechischen Diskussion über die polnische „Neue Musik“ sowie über die musikalische Avantgarde allgemein waren und in welchem Maße daran in der damaligen Tschechoslowakei die gültige Ideologie des sozialistischen Realismus teilnahm.

Milan Kuna

VÁCLAV TALICH ALS STUDENT DES KONSERVATORIUMS

Kunas Abhandlung über das Studium Václav Talichs (1883–1961) auf dem Prager Konservatorium ist ein Kapitel seiner großen Monographie über diesen Künstler, der sich außerordentlich über die Entwicklung der tschechischen Musikinterpretation verdient gemacht hat. Kuna spricht darin über Talichs Eintreten in das Konservatorium im Jahre 1897 unter Mithilfe seiner Freunde von Klatovy, in die Violinklasse von Prof. Jan Mařák. Ohne Mithilfe des Komponisten Antonín Dvořák hätte er aber als armer Student den Aufenthalt in Prag nicht geschafft. Ursprünglich hatte er über eine Solistenlaufbahn als Violinvirtuose erwogen – unter dem Einfluß Jan Kubelíks. Nach vier Jahren Studium war er aber enttäuscht und wollte das Konservatorium verlassen. Erst ein zweijähriges Studium bei Prof. Otakar Ševčík eröffnete ihm den Weg zu einer höheren Stufe der Violintechnik und musikalischen Interpretation. Für seine zukünftige Dirigentenkariere hatte gerade Ševčíks analytische Methode bei der Bewältigung der anspruchsvollsten technischen und ausdrucksvollen Musikprobleme auf ihn den entscheidenden Einfluß. Sein Studium am Konservatorium ergänzte Talich mit Besuchen des Nationaltheaters und den nachfolgenden Leistungen Karel Kovařovic, der Konzerte des Tschechischen Kvartetts und der Tschechischen Philharmonie. Das Studium endete Talich mit einem Absolventenkonzert im Jahre 1903, auf dem er eines der Violinkonzerte von Joseph Joachim spielte.

Petr Macek

POPULAR MUSIC AND CZECH RADIO BROADCAST IN THE YAERS 1923–1938

The study describes the role and the representation of popular music in the pre-war dramaturgy of Czech radio broadcast. Having overcome the elementary technical problems, Radiojournal had to consider the needs and preferences of its listeners–licensees and to create a programme scheme that would respect their demands. On the other hand, the management of the radio company from the beginning followed a rather idealistic path of establishing ambitious artistic objectives in the radio’s programme. The whole pre-war period of Radiojournal’s development was accompanied by constant solving of this crucial conflict in the programme’s creation – the one “between the cheap entertainment and the high artistic quality, between the listeners’ wishes and the radio management’s conceptions”.

Michal Matzner

WORKS FOR ORGAN BY MAREK KOPELENT

The study called Works for Organ by Marek Kopelent is concerned with three composer’s pieces for organ, which come from three phases of the composer’s work: Hallelujah (1967), Morning Eulogy (1978) and Der Gnade Freude (1999). We can say that in terms of moving towards the stimulations of the New Music Kopelent absorbed in the middle of the 1960’s Hallelujah for organ is the most radical by any means. The work with the instrument is quite unusual from the point of view of the time period, when it was written, and this has also been reflected in the acoustically sharp picture of the composition.

Morning Eulogy may be viewed as a sort of milestone in terms of the crystallization of the composer’s personal style. In addition to the New Music elements also the purely tonal planes have been applied here. Due to the intense confrontation of these two worlds the Morning Eulogy has a very poetical character. The last composer’s piece for this instrument – Der Gnade Freude, is “the most classic” one. Unlike his previous compositions the composer returns to the traditional notation rather than using the proportion notations. Even if we cannot speak about a deflection from the avant-garde in the sense of, say, Krzysztof Penderecki development there is a stronger link to the development line of the organ work of the second half of the twentieth century comparing to the first piece by Kopelent composed for this instrument. It is also remarkable that with the exception of four pieces for twelve singers in the “madrigalian” cast and the above mentioned compositions for organ the composer has not written any other pieces for one instrument. The fact that the essay addresses works composed during a relatively long period makes the Kopelent composition development well observable.

Rudolf Pečman

DIVERTIMENTO, CASSATION AND SERENADE IN THE CZECH LANDS OF THE 18th CENTURY

Divertimento, cassation and serenade were important techniques of composition within the Czech lands during the 18th century. Divertimento is considered to be a specific genre of musical composition, mainly of a purpose of entertainment. It is noted for its undemanding composition style. The Italians understood divertimento as a composition for entertainment or amusement purposes. However, they also used the word (till the end of the 17th century) to describe collections of entertaining songs. As for French theater of the 17th and 18th centuries, the word “divertissement” was used for the entr’acte compositions in comédie-ballets or in opéra-ballets (Lully, Rameau). Later on, this term was used for all ballet intermezzos. During the Viennese Classic era, divertimento has developed into a cyclic composition of four to ten movements, which often used sonata form, movements from suite, such as menuet, or even rondos and variations. As we may see, the form of divertimento is quite varied. It is mainly used as entertainment music for the court and the bourgeoisie and we see it as an indication of salon music (later).

Cassation was mainly an evening music, reflecting an old habit of playing in front of the house of a beloved lass. It is a composition of more than one movement, close to a suite. Both wind instruments and string instruments are commonly used in cassation (also in solo parts). These compositions have mostly been played under the open sky and were also a form of entertainment. We may often find cassation been called notturno or sinfonia etc. Cassations were also often connected with feasts (i.e. craftsman celebrations).

Compared to divertimento and cassation – a serenade differs from the former in its inner structuring. It is connected with functionally distinctive situations. The root of the word comes from sérénade (French) or serenata (Italian), meaning a musical production under the open sky or and evening production (from an Italian word “sera” = evening). The music is mainly vocal or vocal-instrumental. Serenade has often been mistaken for divertimento or cassation and sometimes is used as music for the table (“Tafelmusik”).

Among the Czech lands the forms of divertimento, cassation and serenade were a backbone of the music production of the 18th century. These forms were often performed both at the court and elsewhere. Vladimír Helfert used to call Bohemia, Moravia, but also Silesia “the spring of music”, namely for the value of music production within these regions. From the cultural centres music soon expanded to the entire country, mainly to schools and churches. We are sure about its presence due to the information in the archives. These forms, however, were often performed in a simplified manner, often influenced by cyclical sonata, and were often quite variable in terms of its instrumental engagement. On the other hand, all these forms had certain influence on so artificial music (Smetana, Dvořák, Martinů and modern authors). Thus the issue of divertimentos, cassations and serenades may be understood as contemporary.

Jiří Pilka

BEDARF AN PERSÖNLICHKEITEN

In jedem Bereich bewegen sich viele sehr eng spezialisierte Fachleute, die manchmal außergewöhnlich vollkommen sind, andersmal stehen sie am Rande der „Fachidiotie“. Sehr erforderlich sind breit fachorientierte Persönlichkeiten. In diese Gruppe zählen wir auch Ivan Poledňák, den ich mehr als 50 Jahre kenne. Er widmete sich der Musikpädagogik, Ästhetik, Psychologie, Lexikographie, Organisation der wissenschaftlichen Arbeit (als Leiter der Forschungsabteilung der Tschechoslowakischen Akademie der Wissenschaften) auch dem Jazz. In allen diesen Bereichen gab er interessante Publikationen heraus. Er kann ein schöpferisches Arbeitsmilieu erstellen, dazu widmet er sich auch Sport, ist ein guter Klavierspieler und gesellschaftlich charmanter Mensch. Ich hoffe, dass in seinem beachtlichen Lebensjubiläum seinen Kopf graue Haare schmücken werden, aber sein Nachdenken und Arbeitsergebnisse bestimmt nicht grau werden.

Karel Steinmetz

A FEW NOTES ON ENHARMONIC CHANGES IN THE CRITICAL EDITION OF THE SONGS OF HRADČANY BY JANÁČEK

The article deals with issues concerning music notation in a Complete Critical Edition of the Works of Leoš Janáček. He examines the Female choruses Songs of Hradčany bearing on modality, flexible diatonic and so-called Chords with added dissonance.

Miloš Štědroň

CANTILENAE DIVERSE PRO DISTRICTIONE ANIMI ADHIBENDAE DESCRIPTAE ANNO 1745 – NOVA, PAREGRA ET PARALIPOMENA… (AFTER 20 YAERS)

Cantilenae diversae pro Distractione Animi adhibendae descriptae Anno 1745 is a manuscript songbook that appeared in Brno in 1745. After the abolition of the Jesuit Order these valuable resources for the study of early Theresian Brno history, found themselves in the Benediktine monastery of Raigern (Rajhrad). Here, in the 1850s, the well known philologist and literary critic Julius Feifalik studied them and analyzed one of the songs of the collection in a short essay (in: Notizen-Blatt… – editor Christian d’Elvert). The author brings further additions and remarks to his 1991–1992 critical edition and makes the first attempt at identifying the so far anonym author of this collection (Wilibald Gumpensberger, SJ, from Ingolstadt).

Vladimír Tichý

WHAT TO DO WITH THE SEVENTH TONE?

The music theory endeavouring for interpretation of the origin of tone systems as derivation of the harmonic series collides to the problem of the 7th tone of the series. The theory evades this tone or ignores it directly, as if it wouldn’t exist. Already Pythagoras has deduced the tone system only from the first three tones of the series. Aristoxenos included in his consideration even the 5th tone. This starting point was binding for many generations of music theoreticians. Leonard Euler tried to substantiate the sound structure of the dominant seventh chord with the 7th harmonic tone. But the question of this consideration was evident from a contradiction of the theoretical hypothesis and the aural experience. Paul Hindemith built his system of tonal relations on the base of the first six tones of the harmonic series entirely. He didn’t try to overcome the limit between the 6th and the 7th tone. It seems that the problem consists especially on unidentificated interval relations between the 6th and the 7th tone and between the 7th and the 8th tone of the harmonic series. The further zone of the identificated intervals begins newly after the 8th harmonic tone.

It is evident, that the harmonic series gives us the natural model for a derivation the perfect octave, perfect fifth and fourth, major and minor third and major and minor second. But it fails as a model to derivation the triton. Interval between the 5th and the 7th tone is in conflict with the aural experience. It seems that it is an urgent need to look for the origin of triton in the tonal harmonic context, not directly in the harmonic series.

Interval between the 6th and the 7th harmonic tone greatly approximates coincidentally to the measure of the basic step of the Java’s tone system slendro. Would it be possible to consider about the acoustic model in this context?

Jozef Vereš

DIE REFLEXIONEN UND IHRE AKTUALISIERUNG: ANBRÜCHE DER ENTWICKLUNG DER MUSIKKULTUR

In den ausgewählten Zusammenhängen werden die neueren Aktivationsfaktoren dargestellt, die uns helfen, die Erkenntnisse über die Entwicklung des Menschen und über die Entwicklung der Gesellschaft in Bezug auf die anfänglichen musikalischen Ausdrücke zu vertiefen. Die Reflexion orientiert sich auf die alte Kultur in der Entwicklungsbeziehung Mensch, Musik und gesellschaftlicher Fortschritt.

Jan Vičar

METHOD OF A “HOOK” OR A SPECIFIC WAY OF COMPOSING MUSIC

Popular music composers sometimes use a strategy I call method of a “hook” (in the Czech context the term “hook” is meant and probably also understood as slightly ironical). Stephen Citron, a renowned American publicist and an authority on musicals, characterizes the method in his book Songwriting (London, 1986). He defines “hook” as “an idea that‚ ‘sings’.” The “hook” motives that can be traced in song writing are typical ideas or ideas of certain distinctive types that make an immediate impression on masses and therefore are commercially successful. Theory of music sees them as phenomena belonging to so called bound melody patterns, as defined in Karel Janáček’s Melodika (Melodics, Prague 1956). Miloslav Ištvan, a Czech composer, deals with related issues of easy to remember motives, spontaneity, originality and uniqueness of melodies in his handbook Jednohlas v soudobé hudbě (One voice in contemporary music, Brno 1989).

Distinctive motives have always permeated melodies. They can be found in fugues, in folk songs, in famous themes of symphonies and even in recent minimalist musical creations. They can also be traced in Czech hit production of the 20th century. A melodic opposite pole of a “hook” is a classical dodecaphonic series, developing in equal rhythmic values, played in levelled dynamics and spread in a tonal space in a pointillistic way.

Jiří Vysloužil

BALLAD FOR A BANDIT. A MUSICAL BASED ON THE POPULAR RUMOUR ABOUT NIKOLA ŠUHAJ THE PROWLER

The purpose of this essay is the dramatic and musical analysis of one of the most popular Czech musicals by Milan Uhde and Miloš Štědroň (1975). It is primarily concerned with the way Uhde’s word-book varies with the famous novel Nikola Šuhaj loupežník by Ivan Olbracht. The main variations derive from the ideological difference and from the historical context of the work. The study describes Štědroň’s music as a synthesis of a western-movie music with some elements of musical folklore of eastern ethnics. Miloš Štědroň himself describes his music as an “eastern”, while Milan Uhde adds a whole new dimension to the work, especially in cases where he turns away from the social aspects of Olbracht’s novel.

Alena Burešová

IVAN POLEDŇÁK: DIE PASSION DER VERNUNFT

Poledňáks Monographie über den Komponisten Jan Klusák ist eine exzellente Monographie über die Persönlichkeit eines Tonsetzer der Gegenwart, dessen Werk zu repräsentativen Werten der tschechischen musikalischen Kultur den zweiten Hälfte des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts gehört. Ein Bestandteil des Buches ist ein Profil CD.

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